“Whenever the Guesdists moved from the general to the particular, from universal principles to everyday pragmatics, they moved from “humanity” to “France”. The Parti Ouvrier thus learned that “the socialization of the nation has as its natural corollary the nationalization of socialism” (18). Even the movement’s most fervently antinational militants, even the ultracosmopolitan Lafargue, sometimes surrendered to the ardent nationalism of many French workers, of comrades such as Jourde, and of virtually all their enemies (19). Cowering before the tsunami of nationalist passion that washed across the “age of empire”; the POF sometimes resolved to ride the wave, rather than to withstand it. But there was more to the matter than force of circumstance. Marx and Engels, too, had sometimes lurched from cosmopolitanism into what looked suspiciously like nationalism. At mid-century, they regularly seconded what they regarded as “progressive” nationhood. Witness their devotion to Polish freedom,or Engels’s enthusiasm for Irish independence. Why did these self-avowed cosmopolitans back some of the most fanatical national movements of their time? The answer? Pure opportunism” [Robert Stuart, ‘Marxism and National Identity. Socialism, Nationalism and National Socialism during the French Fin de Siècle’, New York, 2006] [(18) E. Carr, ‘Nationalism and After’ (London: Macmillan, 1968), p. 19. For discussion of the socialist co-option of nationalism; and the consequent nationalist co-option of socialism, in the French case, see M. Winock, “Socialisme et Patriotisme en France, 1891-1894”, Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine 20, 1973: 411-12; (19) That there is an ambient “‘habitus’ national” that renders consistent anti-nationalism or even anationality virtually impossible has been argued by Norbert Elias in his ‘La Societé des individus’ (Paris, 1991), as presented in G. Noiriel, “La Question nationale comme objet de l’histoire sociale”, Genèses, no. 4 (1991): 92. For Jourde’s nationalism, P. Hutton, “The Impact of the Boulangist Crisis upon the Guesdist Party at Bordeaux”, French Historical Studies 7 (1971): 230]