“From the beginning of 1844, when Marx and Engels announced their conversion to communism, until the end of 1850, when they faced the fact that the crisis of 1848 was over, their revolutionary tactics were primarily influenced by the tradition of Babeuf, Buonarroti, and Blanqui. This tradition was not the only influence on Marx and Engels. They were far from accepting its principles uncritically. Yet the key to understanding their tactics during this period is to examine the position they adopted on the doctrines of permanent revolution, proletarian dictatorship, and conspiratorial leadership. The slogan of permanent revolution does not appear in the ‘Communist Manifesto’. But the concept is implicit in the claim that Germany is on the eve of a bourgeois revolution that will be immediately followed by a proletarian revolution. After the successes of 1848 and the defeats of 1849, Marx and Engels, in the ‘First Address of the Central Committee of the Communist League to its Members in Germany’, presented a detailed tactical plan for carrying forward the revolution. In this address they distinguish three political programs, representing three classes struggling to dominate the revolution: bourgeois Liberalism, petty-bourgeois Democracy, and proletarian Communism. Throughout every stage of revolutionary development the proletarians must build their independent organization and present their independent program. But at each new stage they must shift their alliances and increase their demands. During the period when bourgeois Liberals are in the ascendancy, Communists should support the struggle of petty-bourgeois Democrats to take power. But in the period when  petty-bourgeois Democrats are in the ascendancy, Communists should struggles to replace them. These tactics are summarized in the statement that the battle-cry of the proletariat must be “The Permanent Revolution”” [Stanley Moore, Three tactics. The Background in Marx, 1963]



(pag 22-23)